Peptidyl-glycine α-amidating monooxygenase
Majority of all biologically active peptides and peptide hormones undergo co- and post translational modifications, which is required for their full biological activities. Once active, peptide hormones function as signaling agents in paracrine and endocrine pathways in a large number of organisms. One such common post translational modification is a C-terminal α-amidation, which is achieved through the consecutive hydroxylase and lyase activities of a single bifunctional copper-dependent enzyme, peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) (Prigge et al., 2000).
In the first step, glycine-extended hormone intermediate is α-hydroxylated upon binding to the ascorbate reduced copper active site of the peptidylglycine α-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM). In the second step, zink-dependent peptidyl-α-hydroxyglycine-α-amidating lyase (PAL) finalize the prohormone activation by cleavage of glyoxylate from the peptidyl-α-hydroxyglycine (Prigge et al. 2004).